Definitions

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)

The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study is one of the largest investigations ever conducted to assess associations between adverse childhood experiences and later-life health and well-being.  The study is a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Kaiser-Permanente’s Health Appraisal Clinic in San Diego. Ten types of childhood trauma are assigned an ACE store determining potential emotional, physical, behavioral risks and how these risks affect society.  The ten types of ACEs included in the original study by the CDC and Kaiser-Permanente include:

Abuse

  • Emotional abuse
  • Physical abuse
  • Sexual abuse

Household Challenges

  • Mother treated violently
  • Household substance abuse
  • Mental illness in household
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional neglect
  • Physical neglect

Alaska has joined more than twenty states in ACE data collection.  In our community, the Southern Kenai Peninsula Resilience Coalition has expanded our definition of ACEs to include Adverse Childhood, Collective and Cultural Experiences.

Domestic Violence (DV)

Domestic Violence (DV) is a serious, preventable public health problem that affects millions of Americans. The term “intimate partner violence” describes physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. This type of violence can occur among heterosexual or same-sex couples and does not require sexual intimacy.* (CDC).

*our coalition has historically used “domestic violence” and “intimate partner violence” interchangeably

Substance Abuse (SA)

Substance Abuse (SA) is maladaptive pattern of substance use manifested by recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to the repeated use of substances. (DSM-IV)

Trauma

Trauma is the negative impact of experiences of events that happen to children, adults and communities as a result of physical, economic, psychological or environmental assault. Trauma may include physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse. Trauma may be caused by domestic violence, community violence, war, loss, natural disaster, long-term exposure to maltreatment and other conditions. Developmental trauma may begin before birth and continue across the lifespan. Trauma may be predictable or unforeseen.